From Automation to Robotics and AI: The Transformation of Digital Manufacturing in the Industry 5.0 Era

The manufacturing industry has undergone several phases of evolution over the years, including Industry 0.0, which involved manual labor and hand tools. From there, we saw the introduction of mechanization and steam power in Industry 1.0, followed by mass production and assembly lines in Industry 2.0. Industry 3.0 brought computerization and automation, while Industry 4.0 ushered in the era of digital manufacturing and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Each phase has sought ways to improve efficiency, productivity, and quality through advancements in technology and automation.